Tuesday, 16 June 2015.
The fact that American universities offer quality education to their students cannot be challenged (Chan & Derry, 2013 p. 28). Universities in America are usually among the best academic institutions at the global level. According to Chan & Derry (2013), most applications for higher education have two interrelated components that make up their missions. The first is to offer students quality education. This component has been completed well. The second is to prepare students for life after school, especially after school. Most of the colleges were unable to complete this second part of their tasks. In a study conducted by Cheg, it was found that there was a large gap between managers and graduates between the readiness of graduates to successfully work at the site of work (Bridge that Gap, 2013 p. 6).
It is encouraging, however, that universities are more involved in the training of students in the post-college life. Smith (2012) highlights recent trends in university attitudes towards post-college students from a historical perspective. One of the reasons why universities became more involved in the preparation of students after college is to improve the reporting requirements. Various stakeholders in the education sector require a return on investment. Higher education is expensive and people expect more from it. They expect the graduates to get a good job after college and not be unemployed at home. According to Smith (2012, p. 10), due to prevailing poor economic conditions, universities must form partnerships within and outside the college to obtain programmes and services that prepare students for life after school
The Government recognizes that there are various alumni who are working or underemployed and have initiated programmes over the years to help such people improve their prospects in the labour market. The Federal Government enacted the Labour Investment Act in 1998. This legislation is aimed at strengthening the coordination between the federal development of labour resources and the programmes related to it (Bradley, 2013). Development programmes offer education as well as training services that prepare people for work and at the same time increase their prospects in the labour market. The WIA Act provides funds for the implementation of programmes within its scope. Although this action was in financial year 2003, it has been extended for a period of time (Bradley, 2013)
Although the WIA Law was initiated to offer the means by which young people, adults and displaced persons can obtain skills in the labour market, it has mixed results (Hollenbeck, 2009). According to Hollenbeck (2009), VIA is apparently effective for adults. However, these programmes for young people have been small and have not shown significant positive results. On the other hand, Barnow and Smith (2008) believe that most of the WIA programmes have not been subjected to a thorough cost-benefit analysis. Thus, most training programmes tend to have no impact on all or at best create moderate positive results. Although there may be few benefits to programmes, some may be justified by equity considerations. The poor implementation of programmes may also be affected by the lack of positive results. The programs do not have adequate funding, and the implementation-haphazardly done
Michigan is one of the states that has done a lot of work to prepare students for work. Long before the federal government passed the WIA law in 1998, the Michigan government has already initiated some innovative work to improve the efficiency, innovation and efficiency of its workforce (O ‘ Shea, 2003 p. 55) This work was done at the governor’s office in collaboration with private and public sector practices. The state already has structures for delivery and supervision by the time when in July 2000 (O ’ Shea, 2003 p. 57) ..
Back in 1993, the state of Michigan initiated the One-Stop Career Center (O ‘ Shea, 2003). The centres were subsequently renamed the Michigan Service Centre (MWSC) and were formalized as a delivery model for the State. In the early 1990s, the State also applied for the first time a technology known as the Michigan Opportunities System. The system offered automated information kiosks and tried to provide better access to training and employment, to streamline the provision of services and to improve the quality and width of consumer choice. Michigan continues to improve the use of technology before and after WIA
MWC is usually managed by private contractors who offer services on behalf of the State. To make sure of it
In the past, economic development, education, the development of the workforce and business services have worked in isolation from each other, far from each other (Polzin et al, 2010 p. 2). They are still needed to take advantage of the synergies that arise when assets from all the domains listed above work together to solve a business problem. To narrow this gap, a Business Solutions Professional (BSP) certification program has been created in Michigan. First, the programme had an average impact on skills development in the area of labour development. However, its effectiveness was lower than expected, as it became clear that education, economic development and business services should be part of the plan to be effective
Employees of South Central Michigan are working with an integrated approach to the development of the workforce (Polzin et al, 2010 p. 2). Comments made by staff during the development of the workforce influence the development of the plan. Based on experimentation with their approach to training, they found that they were better able to service businesses and job seekers in the area by moving from a traditional workforce development model that emphasizes human services. The new model, established in Michigan, includes training, economic development, business services, labour development, and practitioners within the framework of a programme that integrates cross-cutting work and integrated fieldwork. This program helps students develop the skills, knowledge, and knowledge needed to use a systematic approach that defines and takes into account business needs as a key element in creating and maintaining work
The development and implementation of the new project is based on the principles of adult education. Noe (2005) describes the characteristics of adult learners. As adult learners are autonomous and self-sustaining, the curriculum is implemented through interactive sessions using case studies, role-playing, simulation, small discussion groups, problem solving and small group-based activities. The participants are discussing the problems facing the Michigan business and offer presentations on these issues during the program. Adults have extensive knowledge based on life experience. With this feature of an adult, the learning plan is trying to add new knowledge to the existing knowledge, rather than replacing the participant’s previous knowledge with the new one
In Noe (2005), it is also noted that it is important to show respect for adult students. Training programmes contribute to the development of the educational community. Participants are encouraged to share knowledge and experience and apply them in the discharge of these responsibilities. Another feature of adults is that they are relevant. They should know how the programme can make a positive contribution to their work. The program uses panelists and guest speakers to explain to participants the importance of the BSP application. Sessions are created with personal anecdotes and guests who talk about how they have benefited from the program and how it has improved her personal prospects
Another characteristic of adults is that they are oriented towards objectives. They are external and internal motivated. Most BSP intermediaries are involved in the program because they believe that their contribution contributes to the improvement of the economic prospects of Michigan in some way (Polzin et al, 2010 p. 4). Participants are invited on a regular basis to deal with cases where they need to apply the BSP skills from the programme in solving real-life problems associated with their communities. Noe (2005) ultimately claims that adults are utilitarian and problematic. They may not show the answer to knowledge for the sake of knowledge
Knowledge must be a means to an end, not an end in itself. Thus, they can demonstrate a positive response if they see the relationship between the skills being taught and their ability to effectively carry out their responsibilities. Therefore, the program uses examples of possible errors in the field and uses the BSP method to obtain solutions. In addition, the field work helps participants to come into contact with real business problems. They are required to use the BSP method to find effective solutions
The Michigan government has attempted to change the working system from someone who is looking for work, before the employer is focused, that is, the demand-oriented system (Michigan Industry Cluster Approach, 2012). To achieve the transition, the State has set five objectives for economic and labour development (O ‘ Shea, 2003, p. 62). These goals include the creation of a career development system, which is integrated into the education and industry partnership, from low to local level to the state that develops an effective and integrated system of career decision-making. It prepares young people and adults in the job market and creates a career development system based on the qualification and integration of industry standards for scientific workers
Other objectives were to inform and educate the public about the career development system in Michigan, its access to it and its effective use, and to upgrade the skills of the staff of the Department of Career Development in Michigan. This will enable staff members to provide efficient and appropriate services to different types of clients. This approach focuses on the need for cooperation between the private and public sectors. The Michigan State Government has established various approaches to the effective use of synergies that can be achieved through cooperation in education and industry
MWC is an important starting point for cooperation between them. Career development centres do not simply serve as an office for job seekers in their preferred areas. They are a useful instrument through which the State seeks to achieve five economic and labour development goals. One of the conditions for licensing the MWC or BSP is that they must partner with local employers (O ‘ Shea, 2003). This requirement is crucial for the creation of a career development system that is designed to meet the needs of local employers. BSP offers on-site training. This is important for them to help clients make the right choice of their career. The BSP provides a wide range of services, as well as partnerships with various industries. This will improve the portfolio for which more clients can be placed on the state labour market
One of the most effective approaches is the cluster approach to cooperation in education and industry. According to Porter (2005, p. 2), the cluster refers to the dense networks of interconnected companies that are in the region as a result of powerful external effects and externalities within the cluster. This is because the clusters within the cluster are more flexible when it comes to an operation and can more effectively carry out transactions, share technologies and more quickly identify and innovate. In addition, clusters can easily access goods and services because of the same characteristics and requirements
It should be noted that clusters have the inherent advantages of the Michigan State Government in using the cluster approach. The State has identified various priority clusters that could be used as the basis for a needs-oriented working system. The clusters identified include energy, agriculture, manufacturing, information technology, health and clusters (Michigan Industry Cluster Approach, 2012). The option of locally defined clusters was to provide the ability to select the most relevant clusters within a State in their locality
The classification of industries in clusters represents logistical advantages when it comes to training. The clusters help in “convening employers to gather detailed information about work orders, gaps in skills, learning requirements, staff selection rates and other related issues” (Approban Industry Approach, 2012). The State organ of Michigan conducts “first to ask and then approach to the development of the workforce” (Allen, 2012). The intensive emphasis on demand determines the offer of alumni and ensures that the system of development of the labor force actually produces graduates meeting the requirements of employers
An industrial cluster approach can bring several benefits to the economy. According to Porter (2005), clusters play an important role in creating knowledge. They assist in the development of a pool of specialized expertise. In such a situation, there is a higher chance of innovation. Thus, the promotion of cooperation in the field of education helps to ensure the distribution of new knowledge among students who, in turn, will be ready when they join the labour market
Clusters can also be useful in creating new job opportunities. This usually happens through outsourcing. The outsouring is not limited to other businesses, but also to educational institutions (Porter, 2005). Thus, the ideal solution is for cooperation between the scientific and industry sectors to be strong enough to support the process. The cluster approach to the development of the workforce can significantly reduce the long-term cost of training. This is because such an approach ensures that only the necessary specialists will be trained and released on the labour market. Thus, universities may abandon programmes that do not have the demand for the labour market. When graduating students are required to undergo training to enter the labour market, they will significantly reduce the overall cost of training
Based on the above evidence, an industrial cluster approach to the development of labour resources actually gives workers an advantage when they are employed in the labour market. It is therefore important that Michigan continue to apply the approach to the accrued benefits. According to Stewart and Luger (2003), the best practice should be used in the cluster approach. Foremost, the status must be in the cluster service delivery status. Rapid response teams, which include all relevant organizations dealing with cluster-related issues, should be established. In addition, the State must provide a single shop where all needs of clusters can be met. Secondly, it must also invest in clusters. Investments can be based on research and development, marketing clusters, cluster market creation, or the creation of the infrastructure required by the cluster. The State should also encourage and facilitate networking and networking within and within clusters. Finally, the Government must develop the necessary human capital that can be effective in clusters. This should be done in collaboration with clusters
Allen, S. (2012). Regional, demand-driven human resources.
Barnow, S. & Smith, J. (2008). What we know about the impact of investment programs on labor. The revised paper is presented at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the United States. Conference on “Strategies to improve the economic mobility of workers”, organized by the Institute for the Study of Employment, “Strategies to enhance the economic mobility of workers”. Chicago. Received from http://www.chicagofed.org/digital_assets/others/events/2007%20/improving_economic_ mobility/paper_workforce_finment_programs.pdf
Bradley, H. (2013). Received from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t &rct = j&q = demand-+ %system + %system + %28new + Model + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Bridge that: Analysis of the student’s skill index. (2013). Extracted from http://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/Bridge%20That%2 0 Gap-v8 (1) .pdf